The Company franchises and operates
McDonald'srestaurants, which serve a locally relevant menu of quality food and beverages in communities across 119 countries. Of the 40,344 McDonald'srestaurants at March 31, 2022, 37,552, or 93%, were franchised. The Company's reporting segments are aligned with its strategic priorities and reflect how management reviews and evaluates operating performance. Significant reportable segments include the United States("U.S.") and International Operated Markets. In addition, there is the International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate segment, which includes markets in over 80 countries, as well as Corporate activities. McDonald'sfranchised restaurants are owned and operated under one of the following structures - conventional franchise, developmental license or affiliate. The optimal ownership structure for an individual restaurant, trading area or market (country) is based on a variety of factors, including the availability of individuals with entrepreneurial experience and financial resources, as well as the local legal and regulatory environment in critical areas such as property ownership and franchising. The business relationship between McDonald'sand its independent franchisees is supported by adhering to standards and policies, including Global Brand Standards defined in 2021, and is of fundamental importance to overall performance and to protecting the McDonald'sbrand. The Company is primarily a franchisor and believes franchising is paramount to delivering great-tasting food, locally relevant customer experiences and driving profitability. Franchising enables an individual to be their own employer and maintain control over all employment related matters, marketing and pricing decisions, while also benefiting from the strength of McDonald'sglobal brand, operating system and financial resources. Directly operating McDonald'srestaurants contributes significantly to the Company's ability to act as a credible franchisor. One of the strengths of the franchising model is that the expertise from operating Company-owned restaurants allows McDonald'sto improve the operations and success of all restaurants while innovations from franchisees can be tested and, when viable, efficiently implemented across relevant restaurants. Having Company-owned and operated restaurants provides Company personnel with a venue for restaurant operations training experience. In addition, in Company-owned and operated restaurants, and in collaboration with franchisees, the Company is able to further develop and refine operating standards, marketing concepts and product and pricing strategies that will ultimately benefit McDonald'srestaurants. The Company's revenues consist of sales by Company-operated restaurants and fees from restaurants operated by franchisees. Fees vary by type of site, amount of Company investment, if any, and local business conditions. These fees, along with occupancy and operating rights, are stipulated in franchise/license agreements that generally have 20-year terms. The Company's Other revenues are comprised of technology fees paid by franchisees, revenues from brand licensing arrangements and third-party revenues for the Dynamic Yield business. As of April 1, 2022, the Company completed the sale of Dynamic Yield and will no longer record third-party revenues related to this business.
Under a conventional franchise arrangement, the Company generally owns or secures a long-term lease on the land and building for the restaurant location and the franchisee pays for equipment, signs, seating and décor. The Company believes that ownership of real estate, combined with the co-investment by franchisees, enables us to achieve restaurant performance levels that are among the highest in the industry. Franchisees are responsible for reinvesting capital in their businesses over time. In addition, to accelerate implementation of certain initiatives, the Company may co-invest with franchisees to fund improvements to their restaurants or operating systems. These investments, developed in collaboration with franchisees, are designed to cater to consumer preferences, improve local business performance and increase the value of the Company's brand through the development of modernized, more attractive and higher revenue generating restaurants. The Company requires franchisees to meet rigorous standards and generally does not work with passive investors. The business relationship with franchisees is designed to facilitate consistency and high quality at all
McDonald'srestaurants. Conventional franchisees contribute to the Company's revenue, primarily through the payment of rent and royalties based upon a percent of sales, with specified minimum rent payments, along with initial fees paid upon the opening of a new restaurant or grant of a new franchise. The Company's heavily franchised business model is designed to generate stable and predictable revenue, which is largely a function of franchisee sales, and resulting cash flow streams. 13
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Developmental License or Affiliate
Under a developmental license or affiliate arrangement, licensees are responsible for operating and managing their businesses, providing capital (including the real estate interest) and developing and opening new restaurants. The Company generally does not invest any capital under a developmental license or affiliate arrangement, and it receives a royalty based on a percent of sales, and generally receives initial fees upon the opening of a new restaurant or grant of a new license. While developmental license and affiliate arrangements are largely the same, affiliate arrangements are used in a limited number of foreign markets (primarily
Chinaand Japan) within the International Developmental Licensed Markets segment as well as a limited number of individual restaurants within the International Operated Markets segment, where the Company also has an equity investment and records its share of net results in equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates.
Impact of Russia-Ukraine Military Conflict
During the first quarter of 2022,
McDonald'sannounced it was temporarily suspending operations and closing restaurants in Russiaand Ukraine. The temporary closures were effective at the end of February in Ukraineand mid-March in Russia. The Company is supporting its businesses in these markets through the continuation of employee salaries and lease payments as well as providing support to the Company's supply chain in the region. There will likely be negative impacts on revenue and income as long as the military conflict continues. The Company is monitoring the evolving situation, analyzing options and expects to provide direction no later than the end of the second quarter.
Impact of COVID-19 Restrictions on the Business
COVID-19 resurgences continued to result in instances of government restrictions
on restaurant operating hours, limited dine-in capacity and, in some cases,
dining room closures, particularly in
In late 2020, the Company announced the Accelerating the
(the “Strategy”). The Strategy, which encompasses all aspects of
business as the leading global omni-channel restaurant brand, reflects a
refreshed purpose, values and growth pillars that build on the Company’s
Purpose, Mission and Values
Our values underpin our success and are at the very heart of our Strategy. The Company embraces and prioritizes its role and commitments to the communities in which it operates through our:
•Purpose to feed and foster communities;
•Mission to create delicious feel-good moments for everyone; and
•Core Values that define who we are and how we run our business.
The following growth pillars - MCD - are rooted in the Company's identity, build on historic strengths and articulate areas of further opportunity. Under the Strategy, the Company will: •Maximize our Marketing by investing in new, culturally relevant approaches, such as the Famous Orders platform, to effectively communicate the story of our brand, food and purpose. This also includes enhancing digital capabilities that provide a more personal connection with customers. The Company is committed to a marketing strategy that highlights value at every tier of the menu, as affordability remains a cornerstone of the
McDonald'sbrand. •Commit to the Core menu by tapping into customer demand for the familiar and focusing on serving delicious burgers, chicken and coffee. The Company continues to prioritize chicken and beef offerings, as we expect they represent the largest growth opportunities. The Company recognizes there is significant opportunity to expand its chicken offerings by leveraging line extensions of customer favorites, such as the Crispy Chicken Sandwich that launched in the U.S.in 2021 and the Chicken Big Mac and McSpicy limited time offerings that were featured in several markets around the world in 2021 and 2022. The Company is implementing a series of operational and formulation changes designed to improve upon the great taste of our burgers. We also continue to see a significant opportunity with coffee, and markets are leveraging the McCafé brand, experience, value and quality to drive long-term growth. 14 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents •Double Down on the 3D's: Digital, Delivery and Drive Thru by leveraging competitive strengths and building a powerful digital experience growth engine to enhance the customer experience. To unlock further growth, the Company is continuing to accelerate technology innovation so that, however customers choose to interact with McDonald's, they can enjoy a fast, easy experience that meets their needs. In the first quarter of 2022, digital channels (the mobile app, delivery and kiosk) comprised more than 30% of Systemwide sales in our top six markets, representing more than $5 billionof Systemwide sales and a nearly 60% increase over the prior year: •Digital: The Company's digital experience growth engine - "MyMcDonald's" - is transforming its offerings across drive thru, takeaway, delivery, curbside pick-up and dine-in with digital enhancements. Through the digital tools, customers can access tailored offers, participate in a loyalty program, order through the mobile app and receive McDonald'sfood through the channel of their choice. The Company has successful loyalty programs in over 40 markets around the world, including the U.S., France, Germany, Canadaand Australia. The Company expects the U.K.loyalty program to fully launch later this year, completing the roll-out of loyalty programs across its top six markets. •Delivery: The Company has continued to expand the number of restaurants offering delivery to over 33,000, representing over 80% of McDonald'srestaurants. Delivery sales have grown significantly over the past few years, and the Company is continuing to build on this progress and enhance the delivery experience for customers by adding the ability to order on the McDonald'sapp. This capability is now available in the U.K., and the Company plans to expand this capability to the U.S., Canadaand Australiain 2022. In addition to existing long-term strategic partnerships with UberEats and DoorDash, the Company entered a long-term strategic partnership with Just Eat Takeaway.com in March 2022. These partnerships are expected to benefit the Company and its customers and franchisees by optimizing operation efficiencies and creating a seamless customer experience. •Drive Thru: The Company has drive thru locations in over 25,000 restaurants globally, including nearly 95% of the over 13,000 locations in the U.S.This channel remains a competitive advantage, and we expect that it will become even more critical to meet customers' demand for flexibility and choice. The Company continues to build on its drive thru advantage, as the vast majority of new restaurant openings in the U.S.and International Operated Markets segments will include a drive thru. Foundational to the Accelerating the Arches Strategy is keeping the customer and restaurant crew at the center of everything we do, along with a relentless focus on running great restaurants. The Company believes this Strategy builds on our inherent strengths by harnessing our competitive advantages while leveraging our size, scale and agility to adapt and adjust to uncertain operating environments and meet consumer demands. The Company believes the employee experience is critical to its success and, in 2022, implemented Global Brand Standards which are designed to create a culture of safety for both employees and customers in McDonald'srestaurants around the world. These efforts, coupled with investment in innovation, are designed to enhance the customer experience and deliver long-term profitable growth, which is aligned with the Company's capital allocation philosophy of investing in new restaurants and opportunities to grow the business, reinvesting in existing restaurants, and returning all free cash flow to shareholders over time through dividends and share repurchases.
First Quarter 2022 Financial Performance
Global comparable sales increased 11.8% for the quarter.
•U.S. comparable sales increased 3.5%. Comparable sales growth was driven by strategic menu price increases, strong marketing promotions featuring the core menu and growth in digital channels, which continued to benefit from the prior year launch of the Company's loyalty program - "MyMcDonald's Rewards." •International Operated Markets segment comparable sales increased 20.4%. Strong operating performance and the continued reduction of COVID-related government restrictions in most markets drove positive comparable sales across the segment, led by strong comparable sales in
Franceand the U.K.•International Developmental Licensed Markets segment comparable sales increased 14.7%. The quarter reflected strong comparable sales driven by Japanand Brazil, partly offset by negative comparable sales in Chinadue to continued COVID-19 resurgences and related government restrictions.
In addition to the comparable sales results, the Company had the following
financial results for the quarter:
•Consolidated revenues increased 11% (14% in constant currencies).
•Systemwide sales increased 10% (14% in constant currencies).
•Consolidated operating income increased 1% (3% in constant currencies). The Company temporarily suspended operations during the quarter in
Russiaand Ukraineas a result of the military conflict in the region. Results included $27 millionof costs 15
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related to the continuation of employee salaries, lease and supplier payments, as well as
$100 millionof costs for inventory in the Company's supply chain that likely will be disposed of due to restaurants being temporarily closed. Excluding these current year costs and prior year strategic gains of $135 million, primarily related to the sale of McDonald's Japanstock, consolidated operating income increased 14% (18% in constant currencies). •Diluted earnings per share was $1.48, a decrease of 28% (27% in constant currencies). Excluding the costs to support the Company's businesses in Russiaand Ukraineof $0.13per share, as well as a nonoperating expense to reserve for a potential settlement related to an international tax matter of $0.67per share for the quarter 2022, diluted earnings per share for the quarter was $2.28, an increase of 19% (22% in constant currencies) when also excluding strategic gains of $0.13per share for the quarter 2021. Management reviews and analyzes business results excluding the effect of foreign currency translation, impairment and other strategic charges and gains, as well as material regulatory and other income tax impacts, and bases incentive compensation plans on these results because the Company believes this better represents underlying business trends. 16
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The Following Definitions Apply to these Terms as Used Throughout this Form
•Constant currency results exclude the effects of foreign currency translation and are calculated by translating current year results at prior year average exchange rates. Management reviews and analyzes business results excluding the effect of foreign currency translation, impairment and other strategic charges and gains, as well as material regulatory and other income tax impacts, and bases incentive compensation plans on these results because the Company believes this better represents underlying business trends. •Comparable sales are compared to the same period in the prior year and represent sales at all restaurants, whether operated by the Company or by franchisees, in operation at least thirteen months including those temporarily closed. Some of the reasons restaurants may be temporarily closed include reimaging or remodeling, rebuilding, road construction, natural disasters and acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities (including restaurants temporarily closed due to COVID-19, as well as those in
Russiaand Ukraine). Comparable sales exclude the impact of currency translation and the sales of any market considered hyper-inflationary (generally identified as those markets whose cumulative inflation rate over a three-year period exceeds 100%), which management believes more accurately reflects the underlying business trends. Comparable sales are driven by changes in guest counts and average check, the latter of which is affected by changes in pricing and product mix. •Systemwide sales include sales at all restaurants, whether operated by the Company or by franchisees. This includes sales from digital channels, which are comprised of the mobile app, delivery and kiosk at both Company-operated and franchised restaurants. While franchised sales are not recorded as revenues by the Company, management believes the information is important in understanding the Company's financial performance because these sales are the basis on which the Company calculates and records franchised revenues and are indicative of the financial health of the franchisee base. The Company's revenues consist of sales by Company-operated restaurants and fees from franchised restaurants operated by conventional franchisees, developmental licensees and affiliates. Changes in Systemwide sales are primarily driven by comparable sales and net restaurant unit expansion. •Free cash flow, defined as cash provided by operations less capital expenditures, and free cash flow conversion rate, defined as free cash flow divided by net income, are measures reviewed by management in order to evaluate the Company's ability to convert net profits into cash resources, after reinvesting in the core business, that can be used to pursue opportunities to enhance shareholder value. 17
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CONSOLIDATED OPERATING RESULTS
Quarter Ended Dollars in millions, except per share data March 31, 2022 Increase/ Amount (Decrease) Revenues Sales by Company-operated restaurants
$ 2,302.47 % Revenues from franchised restaurants 3,262.8 13 Other revenues 100.4 17 Total revenues 5,665.6 11 Operating costs and expenses Company-operated restaurant expenses 1,959.2 8 Franchised restaurants-occupancy expenses 584.0 2 Other restaurant expenses 72.3 8 Selling, general & administrative expenses Depreciation and amortization 92.7
Other operating (income) expense, net 60.5
Total operating costs and expenses 3,353.0 18 Operating income 2,312.6 1 Interest expense 287.3 (4) Nonoperating (income) expense, net 484.1
Income before provision for income taxes 1,541.2 (21) Provision for income taxes 436.8 5 Net income
$ 1,104.4(28) % Earnings per common share-basic $ 1.49(28) % Earnings per common share-diluted $ 1.48(28) % n/m Not meaningful 18
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Impact of Foreign Currency Translation While changes in foreign currency exchange rates affect reported results,
McDonald'smitigates exposures, where practical, by purchasing goods and services in local currencies, financing in local currencies and hedging certain foreign-denominated cash flows. Results excluding the effect of foreign currency translation (referred to as constant currency) are calculated by translating current year results at prior year average exchange rates. IMPACT OF FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION Dollars in millions, except per share data Currency Translation Benefit/ (Cost) Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 2021 2022 Revenues $ 5,665.6 $ 5,124.6 $ (201.9)Company-operated margins 343.2 343.9 (15.9) Franchised margins 2,678.8 2,305.9 (73.6) Selling, general & administrative expenses 677.0 566.4 8.4 Operating income 2,312.6 2,281.3 (35.4) Net income 1,104.4 1,537.2 (13.4) Earnings per share-diluted $ 1.48 $ 2.05 $ (0.02)
•The impact of foreign currency translation on consolidated operating results
for the quarter primarily reflected the weakening of the Euro, Australian
Dollar, British Pound and Russian Ruble.
Net Income and Diluted Earnings per Share
For the quarter, net income decreased 28% (27% in constant currencies) to
Results for 2022 included the following:
•$127 million, or
$0.13per share, of pre-tax operating expenses incurred to support the Company's businesses in Russiaand Ukraine. Included in this amount were $27 millionrelated to the continuation of employee salaries, lease and supplier payments as well as $100 millionfor inventory in the Company's supply chain that likely will be disposed of due to restaurants being temporarily closed
•$500 million, or
potential settlement related to an international tax matter
Results for 2021 included the following:
•$135 million of pre-tax strategic gains, or
to the sale of
NET INCOME AND EARNINGS PER SHARE-DILUTED RECONCILIATION
March 31, Net Income
Earnings per share – diluted
Inc/ (Dec) Inc/ (Dec) Excluding Excluding Currency Currency 2022 2021 Inc/ (Dec) Translation 2022 2021 Inc/ (Dec) Translation GAAP
$ 1,104.4 $ 1,537.2(28) % (27) % $ 1.48 $ 2.05(28) % (27) % Strategic (gains)/charges 102.1 (98.9) 0.13 (0.13) Settlement reserve 500.0 - 0.67 - Non-GAAP $ 1,706.5 $ 1,438.319 % 22 % $ 2.28 $ 1.9219 % 22 % Excluding strategic charges and gains and a nonoperating expense to reserve for a potential settlement related to an international tax matter, net income and diluted earnings per share for the quarter each increased 19% (22% in constant currencies). During the quarter, the Company repurchased 6.2 million shares of stock for $1.5 billion. Additionally, the Company paid a quarterly dividend of $1.38per share, or $1.0 billion. 19
Table of Contents Revenues The Company's revenues consist of sales by Company-operated restaurants and fees from restaurants operated by franchisees, developmental licensees and affiliates. Revenues from conventional franchised restaurants include rent and royalties based on a percent of sales with minimum rent payments, and initial fees. Revenues from restaurants licensed to developmental licensees and affiliates include a royalty based on a percent of sales, and generally include initial fees. The Company's Other revenues are comprised of fees paid by franchisees to recover a portion of costs incurred by the Company for various technology platforms, revenues from brand licensing arrangements to market and sell consumer packaged goods using the
McDonald'sbrand, and third-party revenues for the Dynamic Yield business. Franchised restaurants represented 93% of McDonald'srestaurants worldwide at March 31, 2022. The Company's heavily franchised business model is designed to generate stable and predictable revenue, which is largely a function of franchisee sales, and resulting cash flow streams. REVENUES Dollars in millions Inc/ (Dec) Excluding Currency Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 2021 Inc/ (Dec) Translation Company-operated sales U.S. $ 639.0 $ 618.33 % 3 % International Operated Markets 1,480.7 1,379.7 7 14
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 182.7
163.5 12 21 Total
$ 2,302.4 $ 2,161.57 % 12 % Franchised revenues U.S. $ 1,493.5 $ 1,420.55 % 5 % International Operated Markets 1,403.3 1,144.4 23 29
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 366.0
312.5 17 21 Total
$ 3,262.8 $ 2,877.413 % 17 %
$ 2,132.5 $ 2,038.85 % 5 % International Operated Markets 2,884.0 2,524.1 14 21
International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 548.7
476.0 15 21 Total
$ 5,565.2 $ 5,038.910 % 14 % Total Other revenues $ 100.4 $ 85.717 % 19 % Total Revenues $ 5,665.6 $ 5,124.611 % 14 % •Total Company-operated sales and franchised revenues increased 10% (14% in constant currencies) for the quarter. Revenues in the quarter benefited from strong sales performance across all segments and were driven by Franceand the U.K.in the International Operated Markets segment. In the International Developmental Licensed Markets segment, the quarter reflected strong sales performance across all geographic regions, with Chinacontinuing to be impacted by COVID-19 resurgences and related government restrictions. 20
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The following table presents the percent change in comparable sales for the
Increase/(Decrease) Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 2021 U.S. 3.5 % 13.6 % International Operated Markets 20.4 0.6 International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 14.7 6.4 Total 11.8 % 7.5 %
Systemwide Sales and Franchised Sales
The following table presents the percent change in Systemwide sales for the
Inc/ (Dec) Excluding Currency Inc/ (Dec) Translation U.S. 3 % 3 % International Operated Markets 16 23 International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 15 19 Total 10 % 14 %
* Unlike comparable sales, the Company has not excluded sales from
hyper-inflationary markets from Systemwide sales as these sales are the basis on
which the Company calculates and records revenues.
Franchised sales are not recorded as revenues by the Company, but are the basis on which the Company calculates and records franchised revenues and are indicative of the financial health of the franchisee base. The following table presents Franchised sales and the related increases/(decreases): FRANCHISED SALES Dollars in millions Inc/ (Dec) Excluding Currency Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 2021 Inc/ (Dec) Translation U.S.
$ 10,429.1 $ 10,089.83 % 3 % International Operated Markets 8,111.9 6,880.6 18 24 International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 6,946.7 6,048.0 15 19 Total $ 25,487.7 $ 23,018.411 % 14 % Ownership type Conventional franchised $ 18,443.3 $ 16,907.69 % 12 % Developmental licensed 4,131.3 3,280.2 26 31 Foreign affiliated 2,913.1 2,830.6 3 7 Total $ 25,487.7 $ 23,018.411 % 14 % 21
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Franchised restaurant margins are measured as revenues from franchised restaurants less franchised restaurant occupancy costs. Franchised revenues include rent and royalties based on a percent of sales, and initial fees. Franchised restaurant occupancy costs include lease expense and depreciation, as the Company generally owns or secures a long-term lease on the land and building for the restaurant location. Company-operated restaurant margins are measured as sales from Company-operated restaurants less costs for food & paper, payroll & employee benefits and occupancy & other operating expenses necessary to run an individual restaurant. Company-operated margins exclude costs that are not allocated to individual restaurants, primarily payroll & employee benefit costs of non-restaurant support staff, which are included in selling, general and administrative expenses. RESTAURANT MARGINS Dollars in millions Inc/ (Dec) Amount Excluding Currency Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 Inc/ (Dec) 2021 Translation Franchised U.S.
$ 1,192.5 $ 1,131.15 % 5 % International Operated Markets 1,125.7 868.6 30 37 International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 360.6 306.2 18 21 Total $ 2,678.8 $ 2,305.916 % 19 % Company-operated U.S. $ 98.3 $ 125.1(21) % (21) % International Operated Markets 241.2 218.0 11 18 International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate n/m n/m n/m n/m Total $ 343.2 $ 343.9- % 4 % Total restaurant margins U.S. $ 1,290.8 $ 1,256.23 % 3 % International Operated Markets 1,366.9 1,086.6 26 33 International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate n/m n/m n/m n/m Total $ 3,022.0 $ 2,649.814 % 17 % n/m Not meaningful •Total restaurant margins increased $372.2 million, or 14% (17% in constant currencies), for the quarter, reflecting strong sales performance across all segments. Franchised margins represented nearly 90% of restaurant margin dollars for the quarter.
•U.S. franchised margins for the quarter reflected higher depreciation costs
related to investments in restaurant modernization.
performance, which was more than offset by significant inflationary impacts on
labor and commodities.
•Total restaurant margins included
amortization expense for the quarter.
Selling, General & Administrative Expenses
•Selling, general and administrative expenses increased
$110.6 million, or 20% (21% in constant currencies), for the quarter, primarily reflecting costs related to the Company's 2022 Worldwide Owner/Operator Convention, higher long-term incentive-based compensation expense and higher costs for investments in restaurant technology.
•Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percent of Systemwide sales
was 2.4% and 2.2% for the quarters ended 2022 and 2021, respectively.
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Other Operating (Income) Expense, Net
OTHER OPERATING (INCOME) EXPENSE, NET Dollars in millions Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 2021 Gains on sales of restaurant businesses
$ (5.8) $ (17.6)
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates (31.3) (35.1)
Asset dispositions and other (income) expense, net (29.5) 8.5
Impairment and other strategic charges (gains), net 127.1 (135.2)
$ 60.5 $ (179.4)
•Gains on sales of restaurant businesses decreased for the quarter primarily due
to lower gains in the
•Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates decreased for the quarter due to lower equity in earnings in
Japanas a result of the Company's reduced ownership in McDonald's Japanwhen compared to the same period in 2021 as well as the impact of continued COVID-19 resurgences and related government restrictions on operating performance in China. •Asset dispositions and other (income) expense, net for the quarter reflected the increase to fair value of an existing restaurant joint venture in connection with the buyout of a joint venture partner within the International Operated Markets segment. •Impairment and other strategic charges (gains), net for the quarter reflected $127 millionof pre-tax operating expenses incurred to support the Company's businesses in Russiaand Ukraine. Included in this amount were $27 millionrelated to the continuation of employee salaries, lease and supplier payments, as well as $100 millionfor inventory in the Company's supply chain that likely will be disposed of due to restaurants being temporarily closed.
Results for the quarter 2021 reflected
primarily related to the sale of
OPERATING INCOME & OPERATING MARGIN Dollars in millions Inc/ (Dec) Excluding Currency Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 2021 Inc/ (Dec) Translation U.S.
$ 1,151.0 $ 1,125.52 % 2 % International Operated Markets 1,129.2 953.8 18 21 International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate 32.4 202.0 (84) (78) Total $ 2,312.6 $ 2,281.31 % 3 % Operating margin 40.8 % 44.5 % Non-GAAP operating margin 43.1 % 41.9 % •Operating Income: Operating income increased $31.3 million, or 1% (3% in constant currencies), for the quarter. Results for the quarter 2022 reflected $127 millionof costs incurred to support the Company's businesses in Russiaand Ukraine. Results for the quarter 2021 included $135 millionof pre-tax strategic gains, primarily related to the sale of McDonald's Japanstock. Excluding current and prior year strategic charges and gains, operating income increased 14% (18% in constant currencies).
•U.S.: The operating income increase for the quarter was driven by strong sales
performance, partly offset by higher selling, general and administrative costs.
•International Operated Markets: The operating income increase for the quarter
was driven by strong sales performance, primarily in
•International Developmental Licensed Markets & Corporate: Excluding prior year strategic gains, the operating income increase for the quarter was driven by strong sales performance, primarily in
Japanand Brazil, partly offset by higher Corporate selling, general and administrative expenses. 23
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•Operating Margin: Operating margin is defined as operating income as a percent of total revenues. The contributions to operating margin differ by segment due to each segment's ownership structure, primarily due to the relative percentage of franchised versus Company-operated restaurants. Additionally, temporary restaurant closures, which vary by segment, impact the contribution of each segment to the consolidated operating margin. Excluding costs incurred to support the Company's businesses in
Russiaand Ukraineand prior year strategic gains, the increase in operating margin percent for the quarter was due to strong sales-driven restaurant margin growth, partly offset by higher Corporate selling, general and administrative expenses.
•Interest expense decreased 4% (3% in constant currencies) for the quarter
primarily due to lower average debt balances.
Nonoperating (Income) Expense, Net
NONOPERATING (INCOME) EXPENSE, NET Dollars in millions Quarters Ended March 31, 2022 2021 Interest income
$ (2.6) $ (1.8)Foreign currency and hedging activity (11.3) 20.3 Other expense, net 498.0 10.1 Total $ 484.1 $ 28.6
•Other expense, net included
a potential settlement related to an international tax matter.
•The effective income tax rate was 28.3% and 21.3% for the quarters ended 2022
and 2021, respectively.
•Excluding the impacts of the
$500 millionof nonoperating expense to reserve for a potential settlement related to an international tax matter, and current and prior year strategic gains and charges, the effective income tax rate was 21.3% and 20.9% for the quarters ended 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The Company has a long history of generating significant cash from operations and has substantial credit capacity to fund operating and discretionary spending such as capital expenditures, debt repayments, dividends and share repurchases.
Cash provided by operations totaled
operations was flat compared with the first quarter 2021, as lower net income
was offset by changes in working capital.
Cash used for investing activities totaled
$554.5 millionfor the first quarter 2022, an increase of $309.9 millioncompared with the first quarter 2021. The first quarter 2021 reflects proceeds received from the sale of McDonald's Japanstock.
Cash used for financing activities totaled
2022, an increase of
increase is primarily due to higher share repurchases in 2022.
Table of Contents Outlook The military conflict between
Russiaand Ukrainehas led to economic and political uncertainty globally. The below information is provided to assist in forecasting the Company's results for 2022, and the Company plans to provide updates as situations warrant.
•The Company expects net restaurant unit expansion will contribute about 1.5% to
2022 Systemwide sales growth, in constant currencies.
•The Company expects full year 2022 selling, general and administrative expenses
of about 2.3% of Systemwide sales.
•The Company expects 2022 operating margin percent to be in the low-to-mid 40%
•Based on current interest and foreign currency exchange rates, the Company
expects interest expense for the full year 2022 to be relatively flat to 2021.
•The Company expects the effective income tax rate for the full year 2022 to be
in the 20% to 22% range. Some volatility may result in a quarterly tax rate
outside of the annual range.
•The Company expects 2022 capital expenditures to be approximately
$2.2to $2.4 billion, about half of which will be directed towards new restaurant unit expansion across the U.S.and International Operated Markets. Over 40% will be dedicated to the U.S.business, most of which will go towards reinvestment, including the completion of restaurant modernization efforts. Globally, the Company expects to open approximately 1,700 to 1,800 restaurants. The Company will open approximately 400 to 500 restaurants in the U.S.and International Operated Markets segments, and developmental licensees and affiliates will contribute capital towards over 1,300 restaurant openings in their respective markets. The Company expects approximately 1,300 to 1,400 net restaurant additions in 2022.
•The Company expects to achieve a free cash flow conversion rate greater than
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements are discussed in the “Recent Accounting
Pronouncements” section in Part I, Item 1 of this report.
25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements The information in this report contains forward-looking statements about future events and circumstances and their effects upon revenues, expenses and business opportunities. Generally speaking, any statement in this report not based upon historical fact is a forward- looking statement. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by the use of forward-looking or conditional words, such as "could," "should," "can," "continue," "estimate," "forecast," "intend," "look," "may," "will," "expect," "believe," "anticipate," "plan," "remain," "confident" and "commit" or similar expressions. In particular, statements regarding our plans, strategies, prospects and expectations regarding our business and industry are forward-looking statements. They reflect our expectations, are not guarantees of performance and speak only as of the dates the statements are made. Except as required by law, we do not undertake to update such forward-looking statements. You should not rely unduly on forward-looking statements.
Our business results are subject to a variety of risks, including those that are described below and elsewhere in our filings with the
SEC. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business. If any of these risks materialize or intensify, our expectations (or the underlying assumptions) may change and our performance may be adversely affected. GLOBAL PANDEMIC
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected and may continue to adversely
affect our financial results, condition and outlook.
Health epidemics or pandemics can adversely affect consumer spending and confidence levels and supply availability and costs, as well as the local operations in impacted markets, all of which can affect our financial results, condition and outlook. Importantly, the global pandemic resulting from COVID-19 has disrupted global health, economic and market conditions, consumer behavior and
McDonald'sglobal restaurant operations since early 2020, and has resulted in increased pressure on labor availability and supply chain management. Local and national governmental mandates or recommendations and public perceptions of the risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have caused, and may continue to cause, consumer behavior to change, worsening or volatile economic conditions in certain markets, and increased regulatory complexity and compliance costs, each of which could continue to adversely affect our business. In addition, our global operations have been disrupted to varying degrees in different markets and may continue to be disrupted to varying degrees given the unpredictability of the virus, its resurgences and variants and government responses thereto as well as potentially permanent changes to the industry in which we operate. While we cannot predict the duration or scope of the COVID-19 pandemic, the resurgence of infections or the emergence of new variants in one or more markets, the availability, acceptance or effectiveness of vaccines or vaccination rates across the globe, the pandemic has negatively impacted our business and may continue to negatively impact our financial results, condition and outlook in a way that may be material. The COVID-19 pandemic may also heighten other risks disclosed in these Risk Factors, including, but not limited to, those related to labor availability and costs, supply chain interruptions, commodity costs, consumer behavior, consumer perceptions of our brand and competition.
STRATEGY AND BRAND
If we do not successfully evolve and execute against our business strategies,
including the Accelerating the
To drive Systemwide sales, operating income and free cash flow growth, our
business strategies must be effective in maintaining and strengthening customer
appeal and capturing additional market share. Whether these strategies are
successful depends mainly on our System’s ability to:
•capitalize on our global scale, iconic brand and local market presence to build upon our historic strengths and competitive advantages, such as our marketing, core menu items and digital, delivery and drive thru; •continue to innovate and differentiate the
McDonald'sexperience, including by preparing and serving our food in a way that balances value and convenience to our customers with profitability;
•accelerate technology investments for a fast and easy customer experience;
•continue to run great restaurants by driving efficiencies and expanding
capacities while continuing to prioritize health and safety;
•identify and develop restaurant sites consistent with our plans for net growth
of Systemwide restaurants;
•accelerate our existing strategies, including through growth opportunities and
potential acquisitions, investments and partnerships; and
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•evolve and adjust our business strategies in response to, among other things, changing consumer behavior, operational restrictions and impacts to our results of operations and liquidity, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
If we are delayed or unsuccessful in executing our strategies, or if our
strategies do not yield the desired results, our business, financial condition
and results of operations may suffer.
Failure to preserve the value and relevance of our brand could have an adverse
impact on our financial results.
To be successful in the future, we believe we must preserve, enhance and leverage the value of our brand, including our corporate purpose, mission and values. Brand value is based in part on consumer perceptions, which are affected by a variety of factors, including the nutritional content and preparation of our food, the ingredients we use, the manner in which we source commodities and general business practices across the System, including the people practices at
McDonald'srestaurants. Consumer acceptance of our offerings is subject to change for a variety of reasons, and some changes can occur rapidly. For example, nutritional, health, environmental and other scientific studies and conclusions, which constantly evolve and may have contradictory implications, drive popular opinion, litigation and regulation (including initiatives intended to drive consumer behavior) in ways that affect the "informal eating out" ("IEO") segment or perceptions of our brand, generally or relative to available alternatives. Our business could also be impacted by business incidents or practices, whether actual or perceived, particularly if they receive considerable publicity or result in litigation, as well as by our position or perceived lack of position on environmental, social responsibility, public policy, geopolitical and similar matters. Consumer perceptions may also be affected by adverse commentary from third parties, including through social media or conventional media outlets, regarding the quick-service category of the IEO segment or our brand, culture, operations, suppliers or franchisees. If we are unsuccessful in addressing adverse commentary or perceptions, whether or not accurate, our brand and financial results may suffer.
If we do not anticipate and address evolving consumer preferences and
effectively execute our pricing, promotional and marketing plans, our business
Our continued success depends on our System's ability to build upon our historic strengths and competitive advantages. In order to do so, we need to anticipate and respond effectively to continuously shifting consumer demographics and trends in food sourcing, food preparation, food offerings, and consumer behavior and preferences, including with respect to the use of digital channels and environmental and social responsibility matters, in the IEO segment. If we are not able to predict, or quickly and effectively respond to, these changes, or if our competitors predict or respond more effectively, our financial results could be adversely impacted. Our ability to build upon our strengths and advantages also depends on the impact of pricing, promotional and marketing plans across the System, and the ability to adjust these plans to respond quickly and effectively to evolving customer behavior and preferences, as well as shifting economic and competitive conditions. Existing or future pricing strategies and marketing plans, as well as the value proposition they represent, are expected to continue to be important components of our business strategy. However, they may not be successful, or may not be as successful as the efforts of our competitors, which could negatively impact sales, guest counts and market share. Additionally, we operate in a complex and costly advertising environment. Our marketing and advertising programs may not be successful in reaching our customers in the way we intend. Our success depends in part on whether the allocation of our advertising and marketing resources across different channels, including digital marketing, allows us to reach our customers effectively, efficiently and in ways that are meaningful to them. If our advertising and marketing programs are not successful, or are not as successful as those of our competitors, our sales, guest counts and market share could decrease.
Our investments to enhance the customer experience, including through
technology, may not generate the expected results.
Our long-term business objectives depend on the successful Systemwide execution of our strategies. We continue to build upon our investments in technology and modernization, digital engagement and delivery in order to transform the customer experience. As part of these investments, we are continuing to place emphasis on improving our service model and strengthening relationships with customers, in part through digital channels and loyalty initiatives, mobile ordering and payment systems, and enhancing our drive thru technologies, which may not generate expected results. We also continue to offer and refine our delivery initiatives, including through growing awareness and trial. Utilizing a third-party delivery service may not have the same level of profitability as a non-delivery transaction, and may introduce additional food quality, food safety and customer satisfaction risks. If these customer experience initiatives are not well executed, or if we do not fully realize the intended benefits of these significant investments, our business results may suffer.
We face intense competition in our markets, which could hurt our business.
We compete primarily in the IEO segment, which is highly competitive. We also face sustained, intense competition from traditional, fast casual and other competitors, which may include many non-traditional market participants such as convenience stores, grocery stores, coffee shops and online retailers. We expect our environment to continue to be highly competitive, and our results in any particular reporting period may be impacted by a contracting IEO segment or by new or continuing actions, product offerings or consolidation of our competitors and third-party partners, which may have a short- or long-term impact on our results. 27
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We compete on the basis of product choice, quality, affordability, service and location. In particular, we believe our ability to compete successfully in the current market environment depends on our ability to improve existing products, successfully develop and introduce new products, price our products appropriately, deliver a relevant customer experience, manage the complexity of our restaurant operations, manage our investments in technology and modernization, and respond effectively to our competitors' actions or offerings or to unforeseen disruptive actions. There can be no assurance these strategies will be effective, and some strategies may be effective at improving some metrics while adversely affecting other metrics, which could have the overall effect of harming our business. We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property or adequately ensure that we are not infringing the intellectual property of others, which could harm the value of the
McDonald'sbrand and our business. The success of our business depends on our continued ability to use our existing trademarks and service marks in order to increase brand awareness and further develop our branded products in both domestic and international markets. We rely on a combination of trademarks, copyrights, service marks, trade secrets, patents and other intellectual property rights to protect our brand and branded products. We have registered certain trademarks and have other trademark registrations pending in the U.S.and certain foreign jurisdictions. The trademarks that we currently use have not been registered in all of the countries outside of the U.S.in which we do business or may do business in the future and may never be registered in all of these countries. It may be costly and time consuming to protect our intellectual property, and the steps we have taken to do so in the U.S.and foreign countries may not be adequate. In addition, the steps we have taken may not adequately ensure that we do not infringe the intellectual property of others, and third parties may claim infringement by us in the future. In particular, we may be involved in intellectual property claims, including often aggressive or opportunistic attempts to enforce patents used in information technology systems, which might affect our operations and results. Any claim of infringement, whether or not it has merit, could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation and harm our business.
We cannot ensure that franchisees and other third parties who hold licenses to
our intellectual property will not take actions that hurt the value of our
The global scope of our business subjects us to risks that could negatively
affect our business.
We encounter differing cultural, regulatory, geopolitical and economic environments within and among the more than 100 countries where
McDonald'srestaurants operate, and our ability to achieve our business objectives depends on the System's success in these environments. Meeting customer expectations is complicated by the risks inherent in our global operating environment, and our global success is partially dependent on our System's ability to leverage operating successes across markets and brand perceptions. Planned initiatives may not have appeal across multiple markets with McDonald'scustomers and could drive unanticipated changes in customer perceptions and guest counts. Disruptions in operations or price volatility in a market can also result from governmental actions, such as price, foreign exchange or trade-related tariffs or controls, trade policies and regulations, sanctions and counter sanctions, government-mandated closure of our, our franchisees' or our suppliers' operations, and asset seizures. Such disruptions or volatility can also result from acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities. For example, in response to the recent military conflict between Russiaand Ukraine, we have paused our operations in Russiaand Ukraineand experienced increased pressure on our supply chain and commodity costs, which we expect to impact our financial results. The broader impacts of the conflict and related sanctions, including on macroeconomic conditions, geopolitical tensions and consumer demand, may have an adverse impact on our business and financial results. Our international success depends in part on the effectiveness of our strategies and brand-building initiatives to reduce our exposure to such actions and events. Additionally, there are challenges and uncertainties associated with operating in developing markets, which may entail a relatively higher risk of political instability, economic volatility, crime, corruption and social and ethnic unrest. In many cases, such challenges may be exacerbated by the lack of an independent and experienced judiciary and uncertainty in how local law is applied and enforced, including in areas most relevant to commercial transactions and foreign investment. An inability to manage effectively the risks associated with our international operations could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. We may also face challenges and uncertainties in developed markets. For example, the U.K.'sexit from the European Unionhas caused increased regulatory complexities and uncertainty in European economic conditions and may also cause uncertainty in worldwide economic conditions. The decision created volatility in certain foreign currency exchange rates that may or may not continue, and may result in increased supply chain costs for items that are imported from other countries. Any of these effects, and others we cannot anticipate, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. 28
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Supply chain interruptions may increase costs or reduce revenues.
We depend on the effectiveness of our supply chain management to assure reliable and sufficient supply of quality products on favorable terms. Although many of the products we sell are sourced from a wide variety of suppliers in countries around the world, certain products have limited suppliers, which may increase our reliance on those suppliers. Supply chain interruptions and related price increases can adversely affect us as well as our suppliers and franchisees, whose performance may have a significant impact on our results. Such interruptions and price increases could be caused by shortages, unexpected increases in demand, transportation issues, labor issues, weather-related events, natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities, or other factors beyond the control of us or our suppliers or franchisees. If we experience interruptions in our System's supply chain, or if contingency planning is not effective, our costs could increase and/or the availability of products critical to our System's operations could be limited.
Our franchise business model presents a number of risks.
Our success as a heavily franchised business relies to a large degree on the financial success and cooperation of our franchisees, including our developmental licensees and affiliates. Our restaurant margins arise from two sources: fees from franchised restaurants (e.g., rent and royalties based on a percentage of sales) and, to a lesser degree, sales from Company-operated restaurants. Our franchisees and developmental licensees manage their businesses independently and therefore are responsible for the day-to-day operation of their restaurants. The revenues we realize from franchised restaurants are largely dependent on the ability of our franchisees to grow their sales. Business risks affecting our operations also affect our franchisees. In particular, our franchisees have also been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and the volatility associated with the pandemic. If franchisee sales trends worsen or volatility persists, our financial results could be negatively affected, which may be material. Our success also relies on the willingness and ability of our independent franchisees and affiliates to implement major initiatives, which may include financial investment, and to remain aligned with us on operating, value/promotional and capital-intensive reinvestment plans. The ability of franchisees to contribute to the achievement of our plans is dependent in large part on the availability to them of funding at reasonable interest rates and may be negatively impacted by the financial markets in general, by their or our creditworthiness or by banks' lending practices. If our franchisees are unwilling or unable to invest in major initiatives or are unable to obtain financing at commercially reasonable rates, or at all, our future growth and results of operations could be adversely affected. Our operating performance could also be negatively affected if our franchisees experience food safety or other operational problems or project an image inconsistent with our brand and values, particularly if our contractual and other rights and remedies are limited, costly to exercise or subjected to litigation and potential delays. If franchisees do not successfully operate restaurants in a manner consistent with our required standards, our brand's image and reputation could be harmed, which in turn could hurt our business and operating results. Our ownership mix also affects our results and financial condition. The decision to own restaurants or to operate under franchise or license agreements is driven by many factors whose interrelationship is complex. The benefits of our more heavily franchised structure depend on various factors including whether we have effectively selected franchisees, licensees and/or affiliates that meet our rigorous standards, whether we are able to successfully integrate them into our structure and whether their performance and the resulting ownership mix supports our brand and financial objectives.
Challenges with respect to labor, including availability and cost, could impact
our business and results of operations.
Our success depends in part on our System's ability to proactively recruit, motivate and retain qualified individuals to work in
McDonald'srestaurants and to maintain appropriately-staffed restaurants in an intensely competitive labor market. We and our franchisees have experienced and may continue to experience challenges in adequately staffing certain McDonald'srestaurants, which can negatively impact operations, including speed of service to customers, and customer satisfaction levels. The System's ability to meet its labor needs is generally subject to external factors, including the availability of sufficient workforce, unemployment levels and prevailing wages in the markets in which we operate. Further, increased costs and competition associated with recruiting, motivating and retaining qualified employees, as well as costs associated with promoting awareness of the opportunities of working at McDonald'srestaurants, could have a negative impact on our Company-operated margins and our franchisees' profitability. We are also impacted by the costs and other effects of compliance with U.S.and international regulations affecting our workforce, which includes our staff and employees working in our Company-operated restaurants. These regulations are increasingly focused on employment issues, including wage and hour, healthcare, immigration, retirement and other employee benefits and workplace practices. Claims of non-compliance with these regulations could result in liability and expense to us. Our potential exposure to reputational and other harm regarding our workplace practices or conditions or those of our independent franchisees or suppliers, including those giving rise to claims of harassment or discrimination (or perceptions thereof) or workplace safety, could have a negative impact on consumer perceptions of us and our business. Additionally, economic action, such as boycotts, protests, work stoppages or campaigns by labor organizations, could adversely affect us (including our ability to recruit, motivate and retain talent) or our franchisees and suppliers, whose performance may have a significant impact on our results. 29
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Effective succession planning is important to our continued success.
Effective succession planning is important to our long-term success. Failure to effectively identify, develop and retain key personnel, recruit high-quality candidates and ensure smooth management and personnel transitions could disrupt our business and adversely affect our results.
Food safety concerns may have an adverse effect on our business.
Our ability to increase sales and profits depends on our System's ability to meet expectations for safe food and on our ability to manage the potential impact on
McDonald'sof food-borne illnesses and food or product safety issues that may arise in the future, including in the supply chain, restaurants or delivery. Food safety is a top priority, and we dedicate substantial resources to ensure that our customers enjoy safe food products, including as our menu and service model evolve. However, food safety events, including instances of food-borne illness, occur within the food industry and our System from time to time and could occur in the future. Instances of food tampering, food contamination or food-borne illness, whether actual or perceived, could adversely affect our brand and reputation, as well as our financial results.
If we do not effectively manage our real estate portfolio, our operating results
may be negatively impacted.
We have significant real estate operations, primarily in connection with our restaurant business. We generally own or secure a long-term lease on the land and building for conventional franchised and Company-operated restaurant sites. We seek to identify and develop restaurant locations that offer convenience to customers and long-term sales and profit potential. As we generally secure long-term real estate interests for our restaurants, we have limited flexibility to quickly alter our real estate portfolio. The competitive business landscape continues to evolve in light of changing business trends, consumer preferences, trade area demographics, consumer use of digital, delivery and drive thru, local competitive positions and other economic factors. If our restaurants are not located in desirable locations, or if we do not evolve in response to these factors, it could adversely affect Systemwide sales and profitability. Our real estate values and the costs associated with our real estate operations are also impacted by a variety of other factors, including governmental regulations, insurance, zoning, tax and eminent domain laws, interest rate levels, the cost of financing, natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities, or other factors beyond our control. A significant change in real estate values, or an increase in costs as a result of any of these factors, could adversely affect our operating results.
Information technology system failures or interruptions, or breaches of network
security, may impact our operations or cause reputational harm.
We are increasingly reliant upon technology systems, such as point-of-sale, technologies that support our digital and delivery solutions, and technologies that facilitate communication and collaboration with affiliated entities, customers, employees, franchisees, suppliers, service providers or other independent third parties to conduct our business, whether developed and maintained by us or provided by third parties. Any failure or interruption of these systems could significantly impact our or our franchisees' operations, or our customers' experience and perceptions. Security incidents or breaches have from time to time occurred and may in the future occur involving our systems, the systems of the parties we communicate or collaborate with (including franchisees) or the systems of third-party providers. These may include such things as unauthorized access, phishing attacks, account takeovers, denial of service, computer viruses, introduction of malware or ransomware and other disruptive problems caused by hackers. Certain of these technology systems contain personal, financial and other information of our customers, employees, franchisees and their employees, business customers and other third parties, as well as financial, proprietary and other confidential information related to our business. Despite response procedures and measures in place in the event of an incident, a security breach could result in disruptions, shutdowns, or the theft or unauthorized disclosure of such information. The actual or alleged occurrence of any of these incidents could result in mitigation costs, reputational damage, adverse publicity, loss of consumer confidence, reduced sales and profits, complications in executing our growth initiatives and regulatory and legal risk, including criminal penalties or civil liabilities. Despite the implementation of security measures, any of these technology systems could become vulnerable to damage, disability or failures due to theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or other catastrophic events. Certain technology systems may also become vulnerable, unreliable or inefficient in cases where technology vendors limit or terminate product support and maintenance. Our increasing reliance on third-party systems also subjects us to risks faced by those third-party businesses, including operational, security and credit risks. If technology systems were to fail or otherwise be unavailable, or if business continuity or disaster recovery plans were not effective, and we were unable to recover in a timely manner, we could experience an interruption in our or our franchisees' operations. 30
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LEGAL AND REGULATORY
Increasing regulatory and legal complexity may adversely affect our business and
Our regulatory and legal environment worldwide exposes us to complex compliance, litigation and similar risks that could affect our operations and results in material ways. Many of our markets are subject to increasing, conflicting and highly prescriptive regulations involving, among other matters, restaurant operations, product packaging, marketing, the nutritional and allergen content and safety of our food and other products, labeling and other disclosure practices. Compliance efforts with those regulations may be affected by ordinary variations in food preparation among our own restaurants and the need to rely on the accuracy and completeness of information from third-party suppliers. We also are subject to increasing public focus, including by governmental and non-governmental organizations, on environmental, social responsibility and corporate governance ("ESG") initiatives. Our success depends in part on our ability to manage the impact of regulations and other initiatives that can affect our business plans and operations, which have increased and may continue to increase our costs of doing business and exposure to litigation, governmental investigations or other proceedings. We are also subject to legal proceedings that may adversely affect our business, including class actions, administrative proceedings, government investigations and proceedings, shareholder proceedings, employment and personal injury claims, landlord/tenant disputes, supplier-related disputes, and claims by current or former franchisees. Regardless of whether claims against us are valid or whether we are found to be liable, claims may be expensive to defend and may divert management's attention away from operations. Litigation and regulatory action concerning our relationship with franchisees and the legal distinction between our franchisees and us for employment law or other purposes, if determined adversely, could increase costs, negatively impact our business operations and the business prospects of our franchisees and subject us to incremental liability for their actions. Similarly, although our commercial relationships with our suppliers remain independent, there may be attempts to challenge that independence, which, if determined adversely, could also increase costs, negatively impact the business prospects of our suppliers, and subject us to incremental liability for their actions.
Our results could also be affected by the following:
•the relative level of our defense costs, which vary from period to period
depending on the number, nature and procedural status of pending proceedings;
•the cost and other effects of settlements, judgments or consent decrees, which
may require us to make disclosures or take other actions that may affect
perceptions of our brand and products; and
•adverse results of pending or future litigation, including litigation
challenging the composition and preparation of our products, or the
appropriateness or accuracy of our marketing or other communication practices.
A judgment significantly in excess of any applicable insurance coverage or third-party indemnity could materially adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. Further, adverse publicity resulting from claims may hurt our business. If we are unable to effectively manage the risks associated with our complex regulatory and legal environment, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could adversely affect the
taxes we pay and our profitability.
We are subject to income and other taxes in the
U.S.and foreign jurisdictions, and our operations, plans and results are affected by tax and other initiatives around the world. In particular, we are affected by the impact of changes to tax laws or policy or related authoritative interpretations. We are also impacted by settlements of pending or any future adjustments proposed by taxing and governmental authorities inside and outside of the U.S.in connection with our tax audits, all of which will depend on their timing, nature and scope. Any significant increases in income tax rates, changes in income tax laws or unfavorable resolution of tax matters could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.
Changes in accounting standards or the recognition of impairment or other
charges may adversely affect our future operations and results.
New accounting standards or changes in financial reporting requirements, accounting principles or practices, including with respect to our critical accounting estimates, could adversely affect our future results. We may also be affected by the nature and timing of decisions about underperforming markets or assets, including decisions that result in impairment or other charges that reduce our earnings. In assessing the recoverability of our long-lived assets, we consider changes in economic conditions and make assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows and other factors. These estimates are highly subjective and can be significantly impacted by many factors such as global and local business and economic conditions, operating costs, inflation, competition, consumer and demographic trends and our restructuring activities. If our estimates or underlying assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges. If we experience any such changes, they could have a significant adverse effect on our reported results for the affected periods. 31
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If we fail to comply with privacy and data collection laws, we could be subject to legal proceedings and penalties, which could negatively affect our financial results or brand perceptions. We are subject to legal and compliance risks and associated liability related to privacy and data collection, protection and management as it relates to information associated with our technology-related services and platforms made available to business partners, customers, employees, franchisees or other third parties. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") requires entities processing the personal data of individuals in the
European Unionto meet certain requirements regarding the handling of that data. We are also subject to U.S.federal and state and foreign laws and regulations in this area such as the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"). These regulations have been subject to frequent change, and there may be markets or jurisdictions that propose or enact new or emerging data privacy requirements in the future. Failure to comply with GDPR, CCPA or other privacy and data collection laws could result in legal proceedings and substantial penalties and materially adversely impact our financial results or brand perceptions.
MACROECONOMIC AND MARKET CONDITIONS
Unfavorable general economic conditions could adversely affect our business and
Our results of operations are substantially affected by economic conditions, including inflationary pressures, which can vary significantly by market and can impact consumer disposable income levels and spending habits. Economic conditions can also be impacted by a variety of factors including hostilities, epidemics, pandemics and actions taken by governments to manage national and international economic matters, whether through austerity, stimulus measures or trade measures, and initiatives intended to control wages, unemployment, credit availability, inflation, taxation and other economic drivers. Sustained adverse economic conditions or periodic adverse changes in economic conditions in our markets could pressure our operating performance and our business continuity disruption planning, and our business and financial results may suffer.
Our results of operations are also affected by fluctuations in currency exchange
rates and unfavorable currency fluctuations could adversely affect reported
Changes in commodity and other operating costs could adversely affect our
results of operations.
The profitability of our Company-operated restaurants depends in part on our ability to anticipate and react to changes in commodity costs, including food, paper, supplies, fuel, utilities, distribution and other operating costs, including labor. Volatility in certain commodity prices and fluctuations in labor costs have adversely affected and in the future could adversely affect our operating results by impacting restaurant profitability. The commodity markets for some of the ingredients we use, such as beef, chicken and pork, are particularly volatile due to factors such as seasonal shifts, climate conditions, industry demand and other macroeconomic conditions, international commodity markets, food safety concerns, product recalls, government regulation, and acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities, all of which are beyond our control and, in many instances, unpredictable. Our System can only partially address future price risk through hedging and other activities, and therefore increases in commodity costs could have an adverse impact on our profitability.
A decrease in our credit ratings or an increase in our funding costs could
adversely affect our profitability.
Our credit ratings may be negatively affected by our results of operations or changes in our debt levels. As a result, our interest expense, the availability of acceptable counterparties, our ability to obtain funding on favorable terms, our collateral requirements and our operating or financial flexibility could all be negatively affected, especially if lenders impose new operating or financial covenants. Our operations may also be impacted by regulations affecting capital flows, financial markets or financial institutions, which can limit our ability to manage and deploy our liquidity or increase our funding costs. If any of these events were to occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Trading volatility and the price of our common stock may be adversely affected
by many factors.
Many factors affect the volatility and price of our common stock in addition to our operating results and prospects. The most important of these factors, some of which are beyond our control, are the following:
•the unpredictable nature of global economic and market conditions;
•governmental action or inaction in light of key indicators of economic activity or events that can significantly influence financial markets, particularly in the
U.S., which is the principal trading market for our common stock, and media reports and commentary about economic, trade or other matters, even when the matter in question does not directly relate to our business; •trading activity in our common stock, in derivative instruments with respect to our common stock or in our debt securities, which can be affected by market commentary (including commentary that may be unreliable or incomplete); unauthorized disclosures about our performance, plans or expectations about our business; our actual performance and creditworthiness; investor confidence, driven in part by expectations about our performance; actions by shareholders and others seeking to influence our business strategies; portfolio transactions in our common stock by significant shareholders; or trading activity that results from the ordinary course rebalancing of stock indices in which McDonald'smay be included, such as the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average; 32
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•the impact of our stock repurchase program or dividend rate; and
•the impact on our results of corporate actions and market and third-party perceptions and assessments of such actions, such as those we may take from time to time as we implement our strategies, including through acquisitions, in light of changing business, legal and tax considerations and evolve our corporate structure.
Our business is subject to an increasing focus on ESG matters.
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus by stakeholders - including employees, franchisees, customers, suppliers, governmental and non-governmental organizations and investors - on ESG matters. A failure, whether real or perceived, to address ESG matters or to achieve progress on our ESG initiatives on the anticipated timing or at all, could adversely affect our business, including by heightening other risks disclosed in these Risk Factors, such as those related to consumer behavior, consumer perceptions of our brand, labor availability and costs, supply chain interruptions, commodity costs, and legal and regulatory complexity. Conversely, our taking a position, whether real or perceived, on ESG, public policy, geopolitical and similar matters could adversely impact our business. The standards we set for ourselves regarding ESG matters, and our ability to meet such standards, may also impact our business. For example, we are working to manage risks and costs to our System related to climate change, greenhouse gases, and diminishing energy and water resources, and we have announced initiatives relating to, among other things, environmental sustainability, responsible sourcing and increasing diverse representation across our System. We may face increased scrutiny related to reporting on and achieving these initiatives, as well as continued public focus on similar matters, such as packaging and waste, animal health and welfare, deforestation and land use. We may also face increased pressure from stakeholders to provide expanded disclosure and establish additional commitments, targets or goals, and take actions to meet them, which could expose us to additional market, operational, execution and reputational costs and risks. Moreover, addressing ESG matters requires Systemwide coordination and alignment, and the standards by which certain ESG matters are measured are evolving and subject to assumptions that could change over time. Events such as severe weather conditions, natural disasters, hostilities, social unrest and climate change, among others, can adversely affect our results and prospects. Severe weather conditions, natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism or other hostilities, social unrest or climate change (or expectations about them) can adversely affect consumer behavior and confidence levels, supply availability and costs and local operations in impacted markets, all of which can affect our results and prospects. Climate change may also increase the frequency and severity of such weather-related events and natural disasters. Our receipt of proceeds under any insurance we maintain with respect to some of these risks may be delayed or the proceeds may be insufficient to cover our losses fully.
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